How Many Valence Electrons Does Sodium Have?
Sodium is a chemical element with the symbol Na and atomic number 11. It belongs to the alkali metal group and is highly reactive. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom, and they play a crucial role in determining the chemical properties of an element.
Understanding Valence Electrons
Valence electrons are the electrons that participate in chemical bonding and are located in the outermost energy level of an atom. They are responsible for the element's reactivity and its ability to form chemical bonds with other elements.
The number of valence electrons an element has can be determined by its position in the periodic table. For elements in groups 1 and 2, the number of valence electrons is equal to the group number. Sodium belongs to group 1, so it has 1 valence electron.
The Electron Configuration of Sodium
The electron configuration of sodium can be represented as 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1. This means that sodium has a total of 11 electrons, with the first energy level filled with 2 electrons, the second energy level filled with 8 electrons, and the third energy level containing 1 valence electron.
Why is Sodium Highly Reactive?
Sodium is highly reactive due to its single valence electron in the third energy level. To achieve a stable electron configuration, sodium tends to lose this valence electron and form a positive ion with a full outer energy level. This electron loss allows sodium to readily form compounds and participate in chemical reactions.
Q: How does sodium achieve a stable electron configuration?
A: Sodium achieves a stable electron configuration by losing its single valence electron.
Q: How many valence electrons does sodium have?
A: Sodium has 1 valence electron.
Q: What happens when sodium loses its valence electron?
A: When sodium loses its valence electron, it forms a positive ion called a sodium ion.
Sodium, with its atomic number 11, has 1 valence electron in its outer energy level. This single valence electron makes sodium highly reactive and enables it to readily form compounds and participate in chemical reactions. Understanding the number of valence electrons an element has is essential in predicting its chemical behavior and interactions with other elements.